Speculative economic, financial, and cryptocurrency bubbles are not arcane anymore; nonetheless, they are still misunderstood. For this exact reason, they continue to form even centuries after the famous first speculative bubbles of 17th and 18th centuries. Bubbles do not form instantaneously; quite the opposite, they progress through several distinct stages that can be monitored and studied in order to take proper policy actions to avoid costly crises. Speculation, as an economic cycle, fuels investment activity; therefore, it is not entirely bad unless it is done excessively via manipulative actions which ultimately cause panic among investors. Speculation alone does not result in a crash, but the induced fear spiraling through the broader economy like the venom of a poisonous snake can be enough to rattle markets and cause bubbles to burst. Exactly what happened in the famous first three bubbles; the Dutch Tulipmania (1634-38), the Mississippi Bubble (1719-20), and the South Sea Bubble (1720). We all know that history repeats itself; every time it does, the damage is far greater than before. Three centuries after the famous first bubbles, the 21st century began with its own famous three bubbles; the Internet Bubble (the dot.com crisis of 2002), the US Housing Bubble (the subprime crisis of 2006-07 followed by the 2008 global financial crisis), and the Cryptocurrency Bubble (Bitcoinmania).
Taskinsoy, John, The Famous New Bubbles of the 21st Century: Cases of Irrational Exuberance (May 13, 2021).