“The most forward-looking provisions that the European Union (‘EU’) laid down in the General Data Protection Regulation (‘GDPR’) are probably those on automated decision-making, which are chiefly included in Article 22 of the Regulation. Automated decision-making processes are already extensively used, both by private and public organisations, and their usage is likely to grow exponentially. Therefore, it is not surprising that Article 22 has attracted considerable attention from academia, data protection authorities, industry, and other stakeholders. However, there is another reason behind such a frenzied interest in the provisions of Article 22: their ambiguity …”
Luca Tosoni, The right to object to automated individual decisions: resolving the ambiguity of Article 22(1) of the General Data Protection Regulation, International Data Privacy Law, https://doi.org/10.1093/idpl/ipaa024. Published: 14 January 2021.